对话“多元智能之父 ” 霍华德.加德纳 (Dialogue with Professor Howard Gardner)

shijinwu青年成长 Youth Development

 2012年11月17日,中国教育论坛邀请到了“多元智能”理论的创始人,哈佛大学教育学院GOOD WORK 项目的负责人 霍华德.加德纳教授来与论坛成员分享他的观点和介绍他的研究。
On November 17th, 2012, China Education Symposium invited the founder of Multiple Intelligence theory and the Director of the Good Work Project at Harvard Graduate School of Education, Professor Howard Gardner, to share his ideas and work with our members

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Q 1中国的早教注重语言和数学,美国也是如此么?

In early childhood education, China focuses on linguistics and mathematics; does U.S follow the same trend?

加德纳教授说美国的早教范围更广,而且与中国的一个重要区别在于美国更注重课外活动,好让学生们能够有更多的探索机会。

Professor Gardner says that the spectrum of early childhood education in U.S is wider than that in China, and a big difference between the two countries is that U.S focused more on extra-curriculum activities so that students are allowed to explore in more directions.

Q2  早期语言干预十分必要吗?

Is early literacy intervention necessary?

加德纳教授建议家长先跟孩子玩,等到孩子能够轻松听懂父母的话的时候再进行语言干预。

Professor Gardner suggests that it is better for parents to play games with their children and wait till they could easily grasp the meaning of their conversation before any literacy intervention.

Q3每个人在不同智能方面的潜力都不一样,全面发展还是发展特长哪个好呢?

Everybody has different potential in different dimensions of multiple intelligence, is it better to place equal importance on developing all dimensions or to focus on a certain talent?

教授说并没有给确切的答案。比如家境良好的可以在很多领域尝试,家境不好而在某方面有天赋的可以考虑努力成为专才。每个人的特点和情况都不一样,因人而异, 但发现个人的特点很重要。

Professor Gardner did not give a definite answer. He advised families with better economic conditions to explore in multiple dimensions while families with less resources might want to focus on a area that the child showed potential.  He further stressed that  every child had a talent and it was important to discover that.
Q4道德是否属于一种智能?

Is morality  an intelligence?

教授认为,道德属于一种价值观,而非智能。他定义的多元智能主要包括寻找问题和解决问题的能力,但不可以被应用于所有领域,比如动力和意志力。可以说培养道德的过程中需要用到多种智能,但是道德自身并非智能。

Professor Gardner thinks that morality is not intelligence. It reflects values.  Multiple Intelligence is about problem finding and solving. MI theory may not apply to areas such as motivation and willpower.
Multiple intelligence is required when developing morality.
Q5多元智能的发展是否有多个阶段?

Do you believe that there are stages for the development of Multiple Intelligence?
加德纳教授说多元智能可以以不同的速度发展。

Professor Gardner clarifies that MI can develop at different rate.

Q6不同智能之间是否独立,是否有某个智能占主导地位?

Are different intelligence independent of each other, is there a dimension of multiple intelligence that is dominating?

教授说这个问题要谨慎回答,不同智能之间只能说是相对独立而非绝对独立,一个人在某一领域很有天赋,可能是多个智能在共同起作用。

Professor Gardner said that this question needs to be answered with caution. Different intelligence is relatively but not absolutely independent of each other. If an individual is talented in a certain field, it might be the synergy of multiple intelligence.
Q7请介绍“GOOD WORK”项目的理论框架?

Please introduce the Good work project framework

Good Work 项目最初名为人类创造力项目,后来改名Good Work 项目。该项目研究好的玩乐,好的工作和好的公民职责。它们都有三大核心组成部分:优秀, engagement, 道德。对于好的工作来说,优秀就是在某领域有熟练的技能,engagement就是专注并且关心自己的事业,道德就是做正确的事。

Good Work project was originally called Human-Creativity Projects and then changed to Good Work projects, which studies good play, good work, good citizenship, etc. There are three elements of “good work”: excellence, engagement and ethics. In terms of good work, excellence means proficient skills; engagement means being focused  and care about one’s career; and ethics means doing the right thing.

Q8您能否评价一下前段时间哈佛大学学生作弊的新闻?

Can you comment on Harvard students cheating scandal?

教授说感到震惊却不惊讶。因为对于哈佛这种优秀的大学按理说不该出现这种事,不过在过去的研究中他发现许多精英为了成功会做出所有努力。而取得成功和做正确的事之间有时候是会有矛盾的。

Professor Gardner says he was shocked but not surprised. Although based on common sense, cheating should not happen in university like Harvard, however, he found that, in his previous research, elites will make all kinds of efforts to achieve success. And sometimes there are conflicts between success and doing the right thing.